WPSU education: connecting k-12 teachers to the rich resources found in public broadcasting

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1. PA Energy Biomass Movie

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Biomass is defined as a biological activity that we can convert into energy. Many potential, renewable sources of biomass energy exist in Pennsylvania, especially on farms. The video explores the concept of sustainability and profiles various facilities that use biomass energy and how they make it, including biodiesel fuel. The importance of biomass energy to the economy and the food supply is emphasized.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

2. History of PA Energy through 20th Century

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

This video describes the history of Pennsylvania energy beginning with prehistoric times up through interest in renewable energy at the end of the twentieth century.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Energy Basics
Resource Type: Video

3. PA Energy’s Energy from the Sun

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

The video segment may be used to introduce the array of solar applications in Pennsylvania. Dr. Andrew Lau explains ways we can use solar energy by converting it to heat, heating hot water, or converting it to electricity. The video provides detailed examples of the benefits of the use of solar energy in a school and in a prison setting.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

4. Photovoltaics (pv4)

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Short animation on what happens in a solar cell on a micro-scale. Photons, tiny packets of energy, make up sunlight. Every minute enough of this energy reaches the earth to meet a year’s worth of the earth’s energy needs. Photovoltaic panels consists of many solar cells, made of materials like silicon, a commonly available element. How individual cells function is explained. Photovoltaic panels, made of these cells, can be designed to meet specific energy needs.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

5. Power Inverter

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andy Lau explains how an inverter turns DC power, generated from the solar cells or wind turbine and stored in batteries, into AC power or electricity. He also shows an electric kilowatt hour meter that measures the amount of electricity used from this whole system.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

6. Solar Water Heater

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andy Lau demonstrates a solar water heating system used to heat the water in the tank inside the bathhouse. A flat plate solar collector works like a car that absorbs heat through the glass windows and heats up inside. The heat is exchanged to water in a tank in the bathhouse; hot water is used to heat the floor of the yurt and to take showers.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

7. Passive Solar

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andy Lau explains the concept of passive solar heat. The sun shines into something with glass on it, like a car with windows, heats it up, and heat is trapped by the glass. Dr. Lau shows how the principle of passive solar heat can applied to grow plants year round in a small greenhouse.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

8. PSU Combustion Lab Tour Segment 1

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andre Boehman introduces his research on renewable, advanced, clean-burning fuels at Penn State’s Energy Institute. Standing next to a Jeep Liberty engine, he explains key research questions. Can these kind of engines run successfully on renewable homegrown fuels, like biodiesel? Will they still get good power, low emissions, and good performance?

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

9. PSU Combustion Lab Tour Segment 2

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andre Boehman discusses the importance of using a commercial engine, like the Cummins turbo diesel found in Dodge Ram pickup truck, to explore how experimental fuels, like biodiesel fuels, will work in real-life situations. A videoscope takes pictures of what happens to the fuel inside the engine, and sensors track fuel ignition and injection.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

10. PSU Combustion Lab Tour Segment 3

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andre Boehman explains the usefulness of a small direct injection diesel engine for exploring how a fuel burns, and what kind of emissions, performance and power it generates. A small engine is useful for testing small amounts of expensive fuel or specialty fuels, like biodiesel, under different loads simulated with a dynanometer.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

11. PSU Combustion Lab Tour Segment 4

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

In this lab Dr. Andre Boehman studies how the compressibility of fuels, particularly alternative fuels like synthetic or biodiesel fuels, causes them to behave differently than diesel fuels in a diesel fuel injection system. Compressibility has implications for when injection occurs, causing changes in emissions and the behavior of engines.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

12. PSU Combustion Lab Tour Segment 5

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andre Boehman studies the properties of viscosity and flashpoint of biodiesel produced in his lab as two indicators of quality. By measuring and understanding these properties, researchers can produce alternative fuels that will inject and burn well.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

13. PSU Combustion Lab Tour Segment 6

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andre Boehman explains that an Ignition Quality Tester measures how well diesel fuel spontaneously ignites. Researchers inject fuel into a small chamber to see how long it will take between injection and ignition. The shorter the delay time, the higher the quality of the fuel. The process is tracked as a graph on a computer screen.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

14. PSU Combustion Lab Tour Segment 7

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andre Boehman provides a context for his research on biodiesel fuel and predicts its role in the future.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

15. Bear Creek Wind Farm Foundation

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of Bear Creek Wind Farm, describes the dimensions of the inverted “T” foundations that support the wind turbines.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

16. Bear Creek Wind Farm Building the Road

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of Bear Creek Wind Farm, says building the towers was easy compared to building the road to cart them up the mountain!

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

17. Bear Creek Wind Farm Bringing in Parts

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of Bear Creek Wind Farm, recalls how bringing parts of the wind turbines on 180 foot trailers around hair pin turns, and up snowy mountain roads was tough.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

18. Bear Creek Wind Farm Specs and Process

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of Bear Creek Wind Farm, provides specifications on the parts of a wind turbine and a brief description of how they are built.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

19. Bear Creek Wind Farm Blade onto tower

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Wind turbine blade is lifted onto a turbine tower at super speed, accompanied by music.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

20. Bear Creek Wind Farm Environmental Concerns

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, construction manager of the Bear Creek Wind Farm, worked with the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to address their concerns about run off of sand and dirt into the area’s creeks and about the wildlife in the area.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

21. Bear Creek Wind Farm Topography

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of Bear Creek Wind Farm, explain that the site of the wind farm, on top of a ridge, provides a great spot to harvest wind more than 8 hours out of 24. Meteorological towers erected 4 years ago measured wind speed at 30 to 60 miles per hour on the ridge.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

22. Bear Creek Wind Farm Turbine Production

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of the Bear Creek Wind Farm, discusses the individual (2 Megawatts) and collective (24 Megawatts) maximum power capacity of the 12 wind turbines. 24 Megawatts are enough to provide a fairly large town with lighting.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

23. Bear Creek Wind Farm Turbine Type and Specs

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of Bear Creek Wind Farm, describes the type and specs of the wind turbines behind him. Made by a Spanish company, the turbines are relatively big for the U.S. The turbine turns a generator that puts power out on a grid, which goes down to a substation, and out to the public.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

24. Bear Creek Wind Farm Power Grid

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of the Bear Creek Wind Farm, explains that the power generated by the farm is tied into a high powered Pennsylvania Power & Light (PP&L) line down the mountain connected to their grid. If there is extra power, it can be sold elsewhere, even out of the state, but it is meant to be used in PA first.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

25. Bear Creek Wind Farm Private vs. Public Land

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of Bear Creek Wind Farm, distinguishes between the process of locating a wind farm on private land or on public land. He offers his opinion on the use of public land, but acknowledges that others are equally valid.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

26. Bear Creek Wind Farm Owners

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Ed DeJarnette, Construction Manager of Bear Creek Wind Farm, explains that the owners of the farm are Community Energy, Maryland, and Babcock Brown, California. The owners sell portions of what they own to investors.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Video

27. Welcome

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Laura Silver of the Center for Sustainability introduces a virtual tour of the Hybrid Homestead, sponsored by The Pennsylvania State University’s College of Engineering.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Video

28. Ecological Footprint

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Laura Silver of the Center for Sustainability introduces the concept of an ecological footprint. An ecological footprint is an assessment to determine how many acres of land people use to support their activities.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Video

29. Inside the Yurt

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

David Lettero, a Penn State graduate student living inside a yurt at the Hybrid Homestead, explains how he meets his energy needs.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Video

30. Kitchen Tips

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Inside the kitchen David Lettero makes coffee with recycled appliances and enjoys the sun.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Video

31. Bathroom Details

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

David Lettero explains the details of a bathroom powered by solar and wind energy.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Video

32. Greenhouse

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

In a winter greenhouse David Lettero provides himself with a variety of winter greens.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Video

33. Bike Power

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

David Lettero explains sustainability as a concept he is working toward and then he rides away on his bicycle.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Video

34. Pa Energy: Wind

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Coal produces much of the power in Pennsylvania, and an unwelcome byproduct: greenhouse gases that warm the planet. Wind power, increasingly available in Pennsylvania, is a clean alternative to coal. As more and more large institutions purchase wind power, an expert predicts the price of this clean energy will go down.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Video

35. Power Systems

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Dr. Andy Lau describes three different power systems for a homestead at the Center for Sustainability and how they work. They include a photovoltaic array, a large wind turbine, and a solar collector. The three systems are designed to work together to generate and store sufficient power for the homestead, even when the sun isn’t shining or the wind isn’t blowing.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Video

36. What is matter?

Source: Explore Materials

This video/animation defines matter, mass, and volume using water as an example. The size, electrical charge and location of the subatomic particles of matter are described. Different types of atoms are called elements and organized in the periodic table. What happens to the properties of atoms when they exist alone or together?

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

37. What is a molecule?

Source: Explore Materials

This video/animation shows that a molecule of water is made up of oxygen and hydrogen atoms. When oxygen and hydrogen atoms exist alone, their properties are different from the properties they have when they are chemically combined to form a water molecule.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

38. What Holds A Molecule Together?

Source: Explore Materials

This video/animation illustrates that a molecule is a small group of atoms that is stuck or bonded together with electrons. Dr. Chris Muhlstein introduces the idea of three primary types of bonds: ionic, covalent and metallic; animations show how they form at the atomic level, and give everyday examples.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

39. Using Nanoscience to Understand the Properties of Matter

Source: Explore Materials

Atoms and molecules are the basic units of matter. The properties of matter that you can see and touch are dictated by the kinds of atoms and bonds that make it up. But if atoms are too small to see, how can scientists figure out their properties? The video shows some special tools that allow scientists to take pictures of and make changes to very tiny or nanoscale materials.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

40. Taking Pictures of Things You Can’t See

Source: Explore Materials

Dr. Chris Muhlstein explains the challenge of studying materials that are too small to see with the naked eye. The technique some scientists use to observe individual atoms is similar to the technique of using touch to find out the size, shape, and location of objects in a dark room. By using a very small, sharp sensor, scientists can create an image of atoms.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

41. Video 1: Universe Orgins

Source: Swift

The SWIFT satellite is helping scientists to discover what may be hidden in far away, powerful explosions called gamma ray bursts. By looking deep into the sky, scientists are looking back in time to the early years of the universe. The historical roots of astronomy and some theories about our solar system are explored.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

42. Video 2: Astronomy Theories

Source: Swift

Scientific progress involves changing existing ideas, refuting theories, and accepting new developments. But scientists in general acknowledge the contributions of those who came before them; science builds upon itself. Building on the Big Bang theory of an expanding universe, SWIFT scientists are exploring gamma ray bursts and the huge amount of energy released by them.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

43. Video 3: Accidental Discoveries

Source: Swift

Gamma ray bursts were discovered by accident during the Cold War in the 60s and 70s by scientists and engineers who were monitoring other countries for nuclear activity. What causes them has remained a mystery for about 30 years, but SWIFT scientists are now able to look closely at them -- at the rate of about 100 a year.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

44. Video 4: Gamma Ray Burst Theories

Source: Swift

Since gamma ray bursts were discovered, different theories about them have emerged. Scientists over the past few decades have narrowed down the reasons for gamma ray bursts, by studying the evidence they have, and suggesting explanations. Using the SWIFT satellite and its three telescopes, scientists are trying to learn what causes gamma ray bursts while testing two leading theories.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

45. Video 5: Looking Back in Time

Source: Swift

NASA’s SWIFT satellite is looking back in time to what the universe was like. Based on the Big Bang theory of an expanding universe, Dr. Ann Parsons discusses how distant in space means distant in time. Because gamma ray bursts are from so far away and are so old, scientists can learn much about the universe and its origins from observing them.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

46. Video 6: Teamwork in Science

Source: Swift

The SWIFT satellite was built by an international team of experts from the United States, Italy and Great Britain. When the satellite detects a gamma ray burst, it contacts scientists around the world, streaming information from outer space down to earth. Complete information about the SWIFT project is available online at swift.gsfc.nasa.gov and grb.Sonoma.edu.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

47. Eyes Through Time Full Length Video

Source: Swift

Swift is a satellite designed to detect and record scientific data about gamma ray bursts. Launched by NASA in November of 2004, the satellite beams data back to earth; this data is accessible to the public via the internet. Scientists hope to study gamma ray bursts in depth to refine theories about why these bursts happen and to help explain the origins of the universe.

Grade Level:
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

48. Hindenburg Disaster Newsreel

Source: Explore Materials

This video is a newsreel about the Hindenburg disaster of May 6, 1937. After crossing the Atlantic from Germany, the movie shows the giant blimp arriving safely in New York City. But as the Hindenburg approaches its mooring, it bursts into flame. Rescuers attempt to save the passengers from the hot, twisted steel.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

49. Structure and Property Changes of Water

Source: Explore Materials

This video/animation discusses and illustrates phase changes. A phase is a physical state of matter. Using water as an example, the video shows that while phase changes result in different physical properties for atoms, the chemical formulas themselves are not changed.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

50. Atomic Arrangements in Solids

Source: Explore Materials

This video/animation asks the question “So if the same molecules are in the solid, liquid, and vapor forms of water, why are their properties so different?” The properties of a material are affected not just by the kinds of atom in it, but also by how they are arranged, and how free they are to move around. Forms of carbon are introduced, from graphite to buckyballs.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

51. Cobb’s Creek Environmental Center

Source: Water, An Endangered Resource

The video asks who will be around to keep water treatment systems going, monitor the quality of streams, and create new initiatives to keep water sources clean. A number of programs address these issues and get young people involved in environmental and conservation activities.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Environment
Resource Type: Video

52. Watershed Associations

Source: Water, An Endangered Resource

Watershed groups have a national impact. The video shows that it is easy to get involved with a watershed group, without committing a lot of time, and to see the effects quickly. An expert points out the cumulative effect of efforts to clean up rivers on the overall health of the nation’s river systems. In Pennsylvania abandoned mine drainage is a challenge for watershed groups.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Environment
Resource Type: Video

53. Cook’s Run

Source: Water, An Endangered Resource

Cook’s Run has an underground water treatment program for a particularly high level of acid mine drainage. The technology used in Cook’s Run was transferred to Pennyslvania from Western metal mines and may prove helpful for other parts of the Appalachian coal region. A watershed group member notes the lack of aquatic life in many Pennsylvania streams as a disgrace.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Environment
Resource Type: Video

54. Energy PSA - Energy Guides

Source:

A funny public service announcement (PSA) urges you to compare energy guides on refrigerators, and other major appliances, before you buy, to save energy and money. This PSA was produced with funds from the West Penn Power Sustainable Energy Fund.

Grade Level: Special Audiences
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

55. Energy PSA - Energy Star

Source:

A funny public service announcement (PSA) urges you to compare energy star labels on washing machines, and other major appliances, before you buy, to save energy and money for the finer things in life. This PSA was produced with funds from the West Penn Power Sustainable Energy Fund.

Grade Level: Special Audiences
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

56. Energy PSA - Ground Source Heat

Source:

A funny public service announcement (PSA) urges you to install a ground source heat pump to save energy and money so you and your sweetheart can relax in style. This PSA was produced with funds from the West Penn Power Sustainable Energy Fund.

Grade Level: Special Audiences
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

57. Energy PSA - CFL Bulbs

Source:

A funny public service announcement (PSA) urges you to use fluorescent light bulbs to save energy and money. This PSA was produced with funds from the West Penn Power Sustainable Energy Fund.

Grade Level: Special Audiences
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

58. Energy PSA - Programmable Thermostats

Source:

A funny public service announcement (PSA) compares the benefits of a programmable thermostat to turning a thermostat up and down all the time, in order to save energy and money. This PSA was produced with funds from the West Penn Power Sustainable Energy Fund.

Grade Level: Special Audiences
Subjects:
Resource Type: Video

59. Act 1 Sc 1

Source:

Summary:
The scene opens with Duke Orsino, hopelessly in love with the beautiful Lady Olivia. He refuses to do anything and commands his servants to entertain him while he pines away for her. His servant Valentine reminds him that Olivia does not return Orsino’s affections and she refuses to hear the messages he sends her. From Valentine, we discover that Olivia is mourning her dead brother. She wears a dark veil and swears that no one will see her face nor will she marry for at least seven years. Her vow to stay chaste entices Orsino more. He sulks and pouts, desiring only to lie about while dreaming of his love.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Arts & Humanities
Resource Type: Video

60. Act 1 Sc 2

Source:

Summary:
In this scene, Viola and a shipwrecked crew pull themselves out of the sea onto the shore of Illyria. Viola’s brother Sebastian is not with them and she fears he has drowned. The captain tries to convince her that there is a chance he survived, but Viola seems to have little hope. Viola must find a way to support herself in this new land. The captain is a native of these lands and explains that Duke Orsino rules Illyria. Viola knows of him and instantly recalls that his marital status as a bachelor. The captain confirms that he is still unmarried, yet he also informs her that the Duke is unsuccessfully courting Lady Olivia who is mourning her dead brother. This similar situation spurs Viola to want to be a servant in Olivia’s house so that she too can hide away from the world to mourn her brother. The captain replies that it would be unlikely Viola would be welcomed into the household. Viola then determines that she will disguise herself as a man and gain a position in Orsino’s household instead. She promises to pay the captain handsomely if he helps her complete her plan.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Arts & Humanities
Resource Type: Video

61. Act 1 Sc 3

Source:

Summary:
Sir Toby, Olivia’s uncle, and Maria, Olivia’s servant, enter the scene at her lady’s house. Sir Toby is often lewd and crude—but funny— due to his overindulgence of alcohol. Maria warns him that Olivia is quite displeased with his staying out late and night and his overindulgences, but Toby does not take it to heart. Maria also criticizes Toby for bringing his foolish friend, Sir Andrew Aguecheek to woo Olivia. Again Toby balks saying that Andrew is a fine match for his niece for he is handsome and rich. Maria does not approve saying that Andrew is just one of Toby’s drinking companions.

Sir Andrew enters the scene. He proves himself to be a bumbling fool when he can’t seem to get her name right. Maria exits. Sir Toby and Sir Andrew continue the scene by joking around when Andrew brings up the fact that Olivia does not seem to be impressed by his courting. Andrew plans to leave the next morning and surmises that Olivia will probably end up with Orsino. Toby disagrees and convinces Andrew that he should stay one month longer. He also compliments Andrew’s dancing skills and convinces him to perform to close out the scene.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Arts & Humanities
Resource Type: Video

62. Act 2 Sc 2

Source:

Summary:
Malvolio tracks down Viola (still posing as Cesario) and returns a ring that Olivia claims she received but does not want from him. At first, Viola is perplexed, but she soon realizes—much to her dismay—that Olivia has fallen in love with Cesario. By the end of her famous soliloquy, Viola expresses concern about the love triangle that has emerged: she wants Orsino; Orsino wants Olivia; Olivia wants Cesario. Too overwhelmed to know how it will turn out, Viola declares that only time will tell.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Arts & Humanities
Resource Type: Video

63. Act 2 Sc 3

Source:

Summary:
Sir Toby and Sir Andrew sit down to have a drink when Feste the clown enters the scene. After some fooling, Feste sings a song, then all three men join in a catch (a song sung as a canon or round). Maria comes along to stifle their rowdiness and warn the men that Olivia is sending Malvolio to quiet them down, but Toby disregards her rebuke and proceeds to sing even more loudly.

Shortly thereafter, Malvolio arrives and orders everyone to either be quiet or leave. No one takes him seriously, including Maria, and Malvolio threatens to tattle on her to Olivia. Once Malvolio is gone, Maria criticizes his simpering self-absorption and hatches a plan to get even with him. She intends to forge a love letter from Olivia to Malvolio, and she recruits Toby, Andrew, and Feste to help with the joke. Maria exits, and Toby and Andrew briefly discuss her merits before heading off to have another drink.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Arts & Humanities
Resource Type: Video

64. Act 2 Sc 4

Source:

Summary:
Back at Orsino’s palace, the Duke summons Feste to perform a song for him. In the meantime, Orsino and Viola have a conversation about a certain someone Viola (Cesario) fancies, and Orsino offers his love advice. When Feste arrives, he sings “Come Away Death,” then Orsino and Viola’s conversation continues. Orsino declares the he will not take “no” for an answer from Olivia, but Viola protests that love doesn’t always go according to plan. The two then debate men’s and women’s capacities for love, and at the end of their exchange, Orsino orders Viola (Cesario) to return to Olivia with a love token from him.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Arts & Humanities
Resource Type: Video

65. Act 2 Sc 5

Source:

Summary:
Toby, Andrew, and Fabian conceal themselves in a box tree while Maria plants the forged letter where Malvolio will find it. Malvolio enters the scene, imagining how he would chastise Sir Toby and his friends if given the chance, when he spies the letter on the ground. He reads it and falls instantly for the prank, which dictates that he should alter his behavior and appearance to win the favor of Olivia. Malvolio exits, determined to do whatever it takes to impress his love, and Toby, Andrew, and Fabian come out of hiding to congratulate Maria for her ingenuity. All four of them leave to watch Malvolio make a fool of himself in front of Olivia.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Arts & Humanities
Resource Type: Video

66. Act 3 Sc 1

Source:

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Arts & Humanities
Resource Type: Video

67. Act 5

Source:

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Arts & Humanities
Resource Type: Video

68. Bend, Twist & Break: The Bridge

Source: Explore Materials

Dr. Chris Muhlstein explains that the arrangement of atoms in a material determines the properties. He drops an iPod to illustrate how the arrangement of atoms can protect it from damage; he narrates footage of the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in the 1940s to show how the deformation of materials can cause the collapse of a structure.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

69. Bend, Twist & Break: Breaking Glass

Source: Explore Materials

Dr. Chris Muhlstein explains that researchers learn about the scientific basis for failure of materials by running experiments in the lab, using a simple shape like a glass rod to calculate the strength of material and predict its failure. The same tests can be done at the micro and nano scale using tiny specimens. Students can run a similar experiment with a bar of chocolate.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

70. Bend, Twist & Break: Fracture Surfaces

Source: Explore Materials

Dr. Chris Muhlstein explains that fracture surfaces can reveal how and why a material has failed. An image of a fracture surface has features or shapes that we can use to understand where a material failed and why. Scientists use an optical microscope or a scanning electron microscope to read a fracture surface at high magnifications, much like we read maps to find our way.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

71. Chris Muhlstein: Research Group

Source:

Each graduate student in Dr. Chris Muhlstein’s research group has training from a different undergraduate discipline. These unique perspectives allow the group to tackle new and state of art problems in material science.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

72. James Collins, Graduate Student

Source:

James Collins, a graduate student in materials science working with Dr. Chris Muhlstein, got involved in the field of nanotechnology because he wanted to know how the world worked, what makes steel strong and some plastics stretch or bounce. He mentions his undergraduate background and future plans.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

73. Jane Howell, Graduate Student

Source:

Jane Howell was always interested in science, math, chemistry, and crystallography, and found that materials science, as an academic field, was the best fit for her. She discusses her undergraduate background and future plans.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

74. Pavan Kolluru, Graduate Student

Source:

Pavan Kolluru wanted to get into studying materials at the nano scale because he thinks that area is the most fundamental and important aspect of materials science engineering. He discusses his undergraduate studies and what he would like to accomplish as a researcher.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

75. Roi Meirom, Graduate Student

Source:

Roi Meirom decided to concentrate on learning about materials, after he realized that engineering boils down to materials. He discusses the path that led him to that decision, as well as his desire to both teach and apply the knowledge he's gained.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

76. Amber Romasco, Graduate Student

Source:

Amber Romasco chose materials science for her graduate degree because she likes working with chemistry, physics, and mathematics. She talks about her academic background and her possible future in failure analysis and mechanical testing.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

77. Lauren Snedeker, Graduate Student

Source:

Lauren Snedeker loves science and being part of cutting edge research in the field of nanotechnology research. Ultimately, she would like to continue doing research in nanotechnology and to have her own business.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Nanotechnology
Resource Type: Video

78. Airline engineer profile: Background

Source:

Amber Romasco found that her familiarity with the male-dominated car repair business helped her succeed as an engineer in a similar environment at a commercial airline. She grew up around the car parts and repair business, and that prepared her for repairing much bigger transportation devices: airplanes!

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

79. Airline engineer profile: Confidence

Source:

Amber Romasco found that having confidence in her knowledge of how to do her engineering job was hard when she first began as an engineer. She learned the necessity of give and take between people who are responsible for fixing what’s wrong with an airplance.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

80. Airline engineer profile: Impact on people

Source:

Amber Romasco recognizes that while airline engineers don’t have direct human to human interaction often, they nevertheless have a significant impact on people’s lives, including their happiness and their livelihoods, by making sure the aircraft is safe.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

81. Airline engineer profile: Graduate school

Source:

Amber Romasco returned to graduate school, not because she did not like her job, or think it was important, but because she enjoys learning new things especially about materials. Her decision to return to school was more of a progression of her career as an engineer, than a divergence from it.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

82. Airline engineer profile: Great field

Source:

Amber Romasco has loved every step of the way of her job as an engineer, in combining the worlds of the materials and airline industries. In both fields there are opportunities for design innovations that make the profession exciting and amazing, in Amber’s words.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

83. Airline engineer profile: Math and science

Source:

Amber Romasco acknowledges that while there is a decent of amount of math involved in being an engineer, the need to work hard on math should not be a hindrance to becoming an engineer. The most intense math a student will encounter will be in college, she predicts. That being said, if a student has an interest in math and science, engineering is a good career to pursue.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

84. Airline engineer profile: School to work

Source:

Amber Romasco worked for U.S. Airways in a cooperative education experience before she graduated from the Pennsylvania State University and gained practical experience that helped her transition into being a fulltime engineer.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

85. Airline engineer profile: Personal interests

Source:

Amber Romasco addresses the stereotype of the one-dimensional engineer whose interests are only math and science. She is not like that at all, she says. As a well-rounded person, she has many interests, including listening to jazz and reading for pleasure.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

86. Airline engineer profile: Career decisions

Source:

Amber Romasco reassures younger students that even in her twenties, she is not sure exactly what she wants to do as a career. She advises students to have a general idea of what they like to do and to stay open to opportunities that may come along. Follow your interests. Follow your heart, and don’t be afraid to make a change if you make a choice that is not what you want.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

87. Lab Tour with Amber Romasco

Source:

Amber Romasco leads the audience on a mini tour of the materials science and engineering lab where she works as a graduate student, ending up in the work area where she spends most of her time.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Career
Resource Type: Video

88. “Do Materials Get Tired? Introduction”

Source: Explore Materials

Dr. Chris Muhlstein, a Penn State University professor, reminds us that matter is made up of atoms, and atoms dictate the properties of materials. He explains that mechanical engineers measure the stress a material can take until it breaks. The ultimate for him would be to make a material that will repair itself; he reminds us that our body can do this.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Materials fatigue and creep
Resource Type: Video

89. “Do Materials Get Tired? Fatigue”

Source: Explore Materials

Dr. Chris Muhlstein, a Penn State University professor, explains how the strength of a material can be measured in the laboratory and used to design structures, like bikes, airplanes, and even chairs. He runs a controlled experiment in his lab by applying precise force to a paperclip until it breaks.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Materials Fatigue
Resource Type: Video

90. “Do Materials Get Tired? Creep”

Source: Explore Materials

Dr. Chris Muhlstein, a Penn State professor, explains that materials will deform slowly under the right conditions, when constant force is applied, and that this phenomenom is called creep. He illustrates “strain”, an engineering term, with rubber bands, and explains that engineers can calculate creep strain as a function of time.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Materials Creep
Resource Type: Video

91. “Fracture Surfaces of Paperclips”

Source: Explore Materials

Dr. Chris Muhlstein, a Penn State professor, explains that the fracture surface of a paper clip, is a map of how it failed to a trained eye. He invites us to view a variety of surfaces with a virtual microscope.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Materials Fatigue
Resource Type: Video

92. Family

Source: Archaeology

In the Archaic Period in Pennsylvania from 10,000 years ago to 3,000 years ago the environment changed and human population increased.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Prehistoric People of Pennsylvania
Resource Type: Video

93. Tools and Other Evidence

Source: Archaeology

The Archaic Period saw the invention of the Atlatl and other efficient tools.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Prehistoric People of Pennsylvania
Resource Type: Video

94. Environmental Change

Source: Explore Materials

Around 11,000 years ago climate change brought about a change in the human culture.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Prehistoric People of Pennsylvania
Resource Type: Video

95. Entrance into the New World

Source: Archaeology

Humans entered the New World 16,000 years ago and the Paleoindian Period in North America began.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Prehistoric People of Pennsylvania
Resource Type: Video

96. Early Woodland Period

Source: Archaeology

The Early Woodland Period was marked by the beginning of agriculture and pottery.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Prehistoric People of Pennsylvania
Resource Type: Video

97. Middle Woodland Period

Source: Archaeology

Pottery and burial practices became more complex.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Prehistoric People of Pennsylvania
Resource Type: Video

98. Late Woodland Period

Source: Archaeology

The Late Woodland began 1,200 years ago and lasted until 450 years ago when the European settlers entered the New World.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Prehistoric People of Pennsylvania
Resource Type: Video

99. I-99 Interview with Mike Joseph

Source: Water, An Endangered Resource

Interview with Mike Joseph of the Centre Daily Times on the issues with the I-99 highway building project.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Environment
Resource Type: Audio

100. I-99 Interview with Senator Jake Corman

Source: Water, An Endangered Resource

Interview with Senator Jake Corman on the issues with the I-99 highway building project.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Environment
Resource Type: Audio

101. The Biomass Balancing Act

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Students will work cooperatively to research biomass using an international energy research foundation's educational website. They will use evidence from the web search to assess biomass energy potential in Pennsylvania as part of a classroom “Alternative Energy Commission.” After preparing and sharing a fact sheet for biomass energy, students will witness a demonstration illustrating the presence of carbon dioxide and design an experiment to investigate carbon neutrality. The suggested time frame for this lesson is three to four (3-4) 50-minute class periods.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

102. Thinking about Energy

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

The following PA Standards-aligned lesson allows practitioners to assess students’ prerequisite knowledge about energy concepts to implement instructional strategies that capitalize on students’ understanding to create the most effective learning environment.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Energy Basics
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

103. Running on Renewables

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Students utilize software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) called HOMER to find out what costs and benefits are associated with converting or combining sustainable technology to their school’s power production portfolio. Their mission will be to best utilize a “Clean Energy Grant” to assist the school in the purchase of renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays (solar panels). Two separate courses or tracks of study based on experience are presented. In Track 1 students use a pre-existing data file and in Track 2 students create a data file to make decisions about what renewable energy sources are best utilized and most cost-effective in their region. Suggested time frame for implementing this lesson is three (3) 50 minute class periods.
Please note: the HOMER software works only on PCs. You will need extra time to download and learn how to use the software, prior to implementing this lesson. If you would like to learn more about HOMER and how it works, visit these sites:

http://www.nrel.gov/homer
http://www.mistaya.ca/homer

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

104. Maximum Power Point

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

In this lesson, students will investigate how to optimize the power output of a photovoltaic cell using a home-made gnomon stand. Data collected from students’ investigations will be used to create current-voltage and power-voltage curves to determine the “maximum power point,” (MPP) at which their PV cell operates. The suggested time frame for this lesson is two to three (2-3) 50-minute class periods .

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

105. Food or Fuel?

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

After taking a virtual tour of Penn State’s Combustion Lab with Professor André Boehman, students will be introduced to the idea of renewable, homegrown fuels. Students will investigate the relationship between fuel properties and chemical structure by making their own batch of biodiesel from virgin olive oil. The suggested time frame for this lesson is three to four (3-4) 50-minute class periods.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

106. As the Rotor Turns: Wind Power & You

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Engineers of the future, step forth! Students will get acquainted with the basics of wind energy and power production by fabricating and testing various blade designs for table-top windmills constructed from one-inch PVC pipe and balsa wood (or recycled materials). The suggested time frame for this lesson is three to four (3-4) 50-minute class periods .

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

107. Solar Racing

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

In this design challenge, students will harness the power of the sun to design, construct and evaluate a solar-powered model car of their creation. Students will utilize the design process and undergo review by their peers to select an optimal gear ratio and components for their car. As a culminating activity, students compete in a “Solar Sprint” race modeled after the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Junior Solar Sprint competition. Depending upon the depth of investigation, the suggested time frame for this lesson is four to ten (4-10) 50-minute class periods.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

108. Siting Wind Power

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

This lesson allows students to analyze and understand a variety of curves that describe the power extracted from the wind by a variety of commercially produced wind turbines. Students will then join construction manager, Ed DeJarnette on-site at the Bear Creek Wind Farm, near Wilkes-Barre, PA, to talk shop about the details of siting and constructing a large-scale wind farm. Students will investigate the major factors influencing wind farm siting such as: wind speed, direction and turbulence; state and federal incentives and turbine design. Students will utilize site specific topographic maps and political boundary data to evaluate and make recommendations to their class and community about potential sites for future wind development. The suggested time required for the entire lesson sequence is four to five (4-5) 50-minute class periods.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

109. Managing Your Energy Budget

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Students will experience an inequitable resource distribution (using a circular treat like cake or pizza) and electronically calculate their own Ecological Footprint. Students will assess their resource use and learn more about sustainable living strategies in a video tour by Penn State University graduate student and Center for Sustainability full-time resident, David Lettero. Students will be challenged to reflect on their own patterns of consumption to suggest ways in which they could realistically reduce their resource use. This lesson will require two to three (2-3) 50 minute class periods.

Grade Level: Middle & Secondary (6-12)
Subjects: Efficiency and Conservation
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

110. Solar Cooking

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Students experiment with a virtual solar cooker to discover the mathematical relationship among reflection, transmission and absorption. They won’t stop there, though! Students than apply their knowledge to building and testing a solar cooker of their own invention. In an extension, students investigate how these principles can be used as sustainable energy sources for homes in Pennsylvania through passive solar heating. Approximately two to three (2-3) 50-minute class periods are required for this lesson.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

111. Spotlight on Photovoltaics & Fuel Cells

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

Students will utilize Internet resources to uncover the pros and cons of two hot topics in alternative energy technology: photovoltaics and fuel cells. Students will analyze the structure and function of each system to make observations about the implications of relying upon each technology and prospects for their future use. Approximately three (3), 50-minute class periods are required for this lesson.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Clean Power
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

112. The Structure of Materials

Source: Explore Materials

High school students will view short clips on matter, atoms, and atomic bonding, and complete answer sheets on what they have learned. They will pair up to participate in an activity called "Building a Glass of Water" in which they will build water molecules with marshmallows and toothpicks. Then they will view more clips that introduce the relationship of matter to nanoscience. Extension activities include making table salt and discussing a newsreel about the Hindenburg disaster.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Structure of Matter
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

113. Building Blocks of Matter

Source: Explore Materials

Middle school students will brainstorm what matter is and how they might define it. Using a packet on the structure of materials and video clips, they will explore the following topics: what matter is, what the important parts of an atom are, what a molecule is, and how chemical bonds change the properties of a substance. Students will construct a water molecule with marshmallows and toothpicks. They will be introduced to the idea of using nanoscience to understand the properties of materials and view some nanoscience tools.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Structure of Matter
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

114. Earth, The Universe, And Culture

Source: Swift

Suggested time: 30 min

The following activity will help the students understand the cultural nature of scientific research. The students will understand how people interpret science in different ways based on their social environments.

Grade Level: Middle (5-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

115. Theories

Source: Swift

Suggested time: 30 min

This activity will help the students understand that science theories change in the face of new evidence, but those changes can be slow in coming. Before Galileo, most of the world’s educated people believed that the rest of the universe moved around the Earth: a geocentric model. Contrary to popular opinion today, their view was not the result of a failure to make careful observations. The earth-centered model—although now known to be incorrect—was actually very well understood by natural philosophers, who were able to use it to make accurate predictions about the movement of heavenly bodies.

We hope that your students come away from this activity with an appreciation for the sophistication of the geocentric model, which is most commonly associated with Ptolemy. You may wish to explain that at the point when natural philosophers abandoned the geocentric model, it was actually a better predictor of astronomical events than was the heliocentric (sun-centered) model of our solar system. However, the scientific community of the day appreciated the relative simplicity of the heliocentric model that was developed by Copernicus and Galileo, and anticipated that once refined, it would prove to be better able to predict future events.

The same process happens today. When new explanatory frameworks—or “theories”—are proposed to explain scientific phenomena, there is often a lengthy period during which groups of scientists use different competing theories to explain the same phenomena. Cosmic gamma ray bursts were first identified in the 1960s, but in the mid-1990s, there was still active debate among the astronomers about their source. Some astronomers believed that they originated just outside our galaxy; others argued that they occurred much farther away. We now know the latter theory is correct.

Grade Level: Middle (5-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

116. Accidental Discoveries

Source: Swift

Suggested time: 45 min

The students will research scientific discoveries of the past that happened by accident. Students will work in teams, each coming up with a list of some of these accidental discoveries in science. From this activity, the students will understand that scientific discoveries are not always intentional.

Grade Level: Middle (5-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

117. The Relationship Between Science and Technology

Source: Swift

Suggested time: 30 min.

Students will learn how technology can help scientists solve a problem. One of the challenges scientists face with any spacecraft is attitude control. Students will be introduced to the problem of attitude control in space and two different ways scientists address it.

Grade Level: Middle (5-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

118. Looking Back in Time

Source: Swift

Suggested time: 45 min

The following lesson plan will provide a concrete way for the students to understand the concept of “distance in space equals distance in time.” This will be done using a time line activity from information gathered in the Student Handout from Lesson Plan 1 (Earth, the Universe, and Culture).

Grade Level: Middle (5-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

119. Creativity in Science

Source: Swift

Suggested time: 45 min

Humans are very curious and have been seeking knowledge since ancient times. Scientists are especially curious. They want to know many things. Scientists and engineers, who know a lot about technology, worked together to create satellites so many different things could be studied. Today, satellites are used for navigation, television broadcasts, communication, and for studying space.

Grade Level: Middle (5-8)
Subjects:
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

120. What’s in Your Stream?

Source: Water, An Endangered Resource

In this lesson students will learn about the impact of the environment on the rivers and streams in Pennsylvania through online resources and scientific investigation of water quality through hands-on fieldwork. The suggested time frame for this lesson is three 50-minute class periods.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Environment
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

121. Acid Rock WebQuest

Source: Water, An Endangered Resource

In this lesson students will learn about the impact of development on the quality of rivers and streams in Pennsylvania. Students will participate in an online inquiry of a real world problem affecting a local community in Pennsylvania. The suggested time frame for this lesson is three to four 50-minute class periods.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Environment
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

122. Raising the pH

Source: Water, An Endangered Resource

In this lesson students will explore the concept of watersheds and how the reclamation of abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania improves water quality. The suggested time frame for this lesson plan is three to four 50-minute class periods.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Environment
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

123. Structure-Property Relationships

Source: Explore Materials

High school students will explore the structure and property changes of water through videos and classroom discussion. They will be introduced to atomic arrangement of solids by looking closely at carbon in different forms, such as graphite and diamond. They will view and manipulate online files of graphite and diamond structures to discover similarities and differences. An extension activity is research of buckyballs.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Structure and Property Changes of Water
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

124. How Structure Can Affect Properties Through Phase Changes

Source: Explore Materials

Middle school students will discuss how changing the structure of atoms and molecules can change the properties of a substance after watching videos and filling out worksheets. Students can brainstorm and review their own examples of phase change with the help of a phase change diagram. The idea of technology that can change the structure of materials will be introduced. An extension activity on buckyballs is available.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Structure-Property Relationships
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

125. Walk a Mile for a Burger?

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

In this lesson, students will be introduced to the pedometer, and will use this tool to associate physical activity (physical energy) with calories burned (chemical energy). In future lab exercises, the students may build on this knowledge by examining and comparing other forms of energy, such as energy used in the production of electricity or in refining fuels. Pairing these lessons would enable students to move stepwise from using and manipulating familiar food energy units to more conventional and less conceptually accessible physical science energy and power units like the joule and the watt. Approximately two 50-minute long class periods are recommended to complete this lesson.
This lesson can be implemented in a stand-alone fashion to address the basic premise of converting physical energy to chemical energy or in conjunction with other E21 lessons "Eat Your Energy's Worth" and "Electricity Unplugged" which are located at http://www.pspb.org/e21.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Energy Basics
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

126. Eating your Energy’s Worth

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

In this lesson, students will use the “Energy Calculator” to explore the consumption of energy. This lesson takes a novel approach to introducing the concept of energy consumption by starting an activity where students make predictions about the energy content of “student-friendly” food energy units and exercise. In the second part of the lesson, students make and test predictions with regards to home appliances. Students devise ways to use the Energy Calculator to test their predictions and use everyday quantities like food units to begin to grasp the relative magnitudes of energy use by appliances and the equivalent amount of work in terms of human exercise and physical activity. One 50-minute long class period is recommended to complete this lesson.
This lesson can be implemented in a stand-alone fashion to address the basic premise of connecting food energy units to more conventional and less conceptually accessible physical science energy and power units like the joule and the watt or in conjunction with other E21 lessons "Walk a Mile for a Burger?" and "Electricity Unplugged" which are located at http://www.pspb.org/e21.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Energy Basics
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

127. Electricity Unplugged

Source: Clean Energy for the 21st Century

In this lesson, students will get acquainted (or re-acquainted) with how electricity is produced. They will have an opportunity to compare and contrast different types of electricity production systems (EP systems) and their associated parts, processes and products. As a culminating activity, students will draft a letter to the local government making recommendations about EP systems to be used in their communities. Approximately four to five 50-minute long class periods are recommended to complete this investigation.
This lesson can be implemented in a stand-alone fashion to address the basic premise of electricity production in Pennsylvania or as an introduction to a larger unit on alternative energy technology in conjunction with other lessons from the E21 website (http://www.pspb.org/e21). The E21 lessons, “Eat your Energy’s Worth” and “Walk a Mile for a Burger,” are complementary for study of energy basics and lessons found in the “Clean Energy” strand would be appropriate to extend an exploration of alternative energies.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Energy Basics
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

128. Turtle Lesson

Source: iWonder

In this lesson students will learn about 5 common turtles that are native to the eastern United States. Students will explore each turtle’s characteristics, environment, means of protection, eating habits, and learn how they can help these turtles survive. The suggested time frame for this lesson is four to five 50 minutes class periods.

Grade Level: 4-6
Subjects:
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

129. Tree Lesson

Source: iWonder

In this lesson students will learn about the identifying characteristics and environments of Conifer and Hardwood trees that are native to Pennsylvania. Students will also learn the ways that humans use trees and how this impacts the environment. The suggested timeframe for this lesson is three 50-minute class periods.

Grade Level: 4-6
Subjects:
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

130. Mechanical Properties of Chocolate: How Hard is your Chocolate?

Source: Explore Materials

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Materials
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

131. Mechanical Properties of Chocolate: How Strong is your Chocolate?

Source: Explore Materials

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Materials
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

132. Breaking Things on Purpose

Source: Explore Materials

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Materials
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

133. How Hard is Chocolate?

Source: Explore Materials

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Materials
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

134. Do Materials Get Tired? How Long will a Paperclip Last?

Source: Explore Materials

Materials such as metals (aluminum, iron, copper, etc.), ceramics (silicon carbide, porcelain) or polymers (milk jugs made of polyethylene) are tested by scientists and engineers to reveal certain mechanical properties to determine what uses the materials may have. One property that is tested is the amount of stress a material can handle before it breaks. You have probably tested the amount of stress a material can handle before by twisting or pushing on an object such as a toy until it breaks. The amount of stress a material can handle before it breaks measures how strong the material is. Also, as a material gets older, it can handle less stress which can cause it to fail at much lower stresses. For example, if a material is loaded over and over again and then fails it has undergone what is known as fatigue.

Fatigue is a very common mode of failure for materials and has been studied for centuries. Fatigue occurs every day in objects that you’re familiar with. For example, airplane wings fatigue thousands of cycles on every flight and bridges fatigue every time a car drives over them. However, just because a material is undergoing fatigue does not mean that it will always break. In fact, engineers run careful experiments so that they can be sure that things will not break due to fatigue while you are using them.

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Materials Fatigue
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

135. Do Materials Get Tired? Do Rubber Bands Get Longer During Use?

Source: Explore Materials

Materials such as metals (aluminum, iron, copper, etc.), ceramics (silicon carbide, porcelain) or polymers (milk jugs made of polyethylene) are tested by scientists and engineers to reveal certain mechanical properties such as the maximum stress a material can withstand before it fails. Some materials will slowly deform when a constant force or displacement is applied to them. This time-dependent and permanent deformation is called creep.

If you have ever noticed that chewing gum gradually sags when it is stuck to something or watched a plastic grocery bag gradually tear apart when it is carrying too much weight, you have observed creep!

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Materials Creep
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

136. Do Materials Get Tired? How Long will a Paperclip Last?

Source: Explore Materials

Materials such as metals (aluminum, iron, copper, etc.), ceramics (silicon carbide, porcelain) or polymers (milk jugs made of polyethylene) are tested by scientists and engineers to reveal certain mechanical properties, such as the maximum stress a material can withstand before it fails. The stress at which a material breaks is a measure of its strength. During use a material may degrade, which may cause it to fail at much lower stresses. For example, if a material is loaded over and over again and then fails it has undergone what is known as fatigue.

Fatigue is a very common mode of failure for materials and has been studied for centuries. Fatigue occurs every day in objects that you’re familiar with. For example, airplane wings fatigue thousands of cycles on every flight and bridges fatigue every time a car drives over them. However, just because a material is undergoing fatigue does not mean that it will always break. In fact, engineers run careful experiments so that they can be sure that things will not break due to fatigue while you are using them.

Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Materials Fatigue
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

137. Do Materials Get Tired? Do Rubber Bands Get Longer During Use?

Source: Explore Materials

Materials such as metals (aluminum, iron, copper, etc.), ceramics (silicon carbide, porcelain) or polymers (milk jugs made of polyethylene) are tested by scientists and engineers to reveal certain mechanical properties such as the maximum stress a material can withstand before it fails. Some materials will slowly deform when a constant force or displacement is applied to them. This time-dependent and permanent deformation is called creep.

If you have ever noticed that chewing gum gradually sags when it is stuck to something or watched a plastic grocery bag gradually tear apart when it is carrying too much weight, you have observed creep!







Grade Level: Secondary (9-12)
Subjects: Materials Creep
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

138. Reading Comprehension -- Determining Important Ideas

Source: Blue Ribbon Readers

In this lesson, students explore how to become better readers through the identification of main ideas, supporting details, and author’s message. First, a teacher read-aloud inspires a class discussion that focuses on prioritizing information so that it makes better sense to the reader. Students then participate in a shared reading that allows them to again use the process of identifying important information. Finally, they extend their understanding through an online interactive activity.

Grade Level: Primary (K-5)
Subjects: Reading Comprehension
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

139. Reading Comprehension -- Monitoring and Repairing

Source: Blue Ribbon Readers

In this lesson students will strive to become better readers by paying attention to clues given in the text. By using the “monitoring/repairing” strategy, students will observe and practice using other parts of a story to help them figure out unfamiliar words or ideas, and discover how they can put information together to help them get a better understanding of what they read. They will practice the strategy with an online interactive activity that reinforces the thinking process of the monitoring/repairing strategy.

Grade Level: Primary (K-5)
Subjects: Reading Comprehension
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

140. Reading Comprehension -- Synthesis

Source: Blue Ribbon Readers

In this lesson, students explore how to become better readers by putting information together. First, a teacher read-aloud inspires a class discussion that focuses on sorting information so that it makes better sense to the reader. Students then participate in a shared reading that allows them to again use the process of putting information together. Finally, they extend their understanding through an online interactive activity.

Grade Level: Primary (K-5)
Subjects: Reading Comprehension
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

141. Archaic Period: Compare and Contrast

Source: Archaeology

Students will describe what life was like during the Archaic Period in Pennsylvania

(Time: 30-50 minutes)

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Archaic Period
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

142. Archaic Period: Hypothesizing

Source: Archaeology

Students will understand the way of life of the Archaic People by gleaning salient points from the text.

(Time: 50 minutes)

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Archaic Period
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

143. Archaic Period: Jackdaws

Source: Archaeology

Students will hypothesize about life in the Archaic Period from the study of culturally related groups of artifacts and other remains which archaeologists call assemblages.

(Time: 1 hour and 10 minutes for a two-part lesson)

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Archaic Period
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

144. Paleoindian Period: Know-Want to Know-Learned

Source: Archaeology

Students will develop their questions about how the earliest humans entered North America. From these questions students develop their own purpose for reading and research.

(Time: 30-50 minutes)

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Paleoindian Period
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

145. Paleoindian Period: Fluted Point

Source: Archaeology

Students will learn about the changes brought about by the invention of the fluted point.

(Time: 1 hour and 20 minutes for a two-part lesson plan)

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Paleoindian Period
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

146. Woodland Period: Predictions

Source: Archaeology

Students will become familiar with different aspects of life in the Woodland Period.

(Time: 30 minutes)

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Woodland Period
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

147. Woodland Period: Burial Ceremonies

Source: Archaeology

Students will create hypotheses about the burial practices of the Adena and Hopewell.

(Time: 50 minutes)

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Woodland Period
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

148. Woodland Period: Categorizing

Source: Archaeology

Students will understand the progression of the Woodland Period.

(Time: 50 minutes)

Grade Level: Middle (6-8)
Subjects: Woodland Period
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

149. Reading Comprehension -- Drawing Inferences

Source: Blue Ribbon Readers

Throughout this lesson, students will be focusing on Drawing Inferences, which is one of the 7 Keys to Comprehension. First, students will be introduced to the strategy, and how it can be used to extend their understanding of different types of texts. The teacher will first model how the strategy can be used. During a shared reading the teacher will gradually turn over some of the responsibility to the students. Finally, the students are given the chance to practice independently using the interactive activity provided.

Grade Level: Primary (K-5)
Subjects: Reading Comprehension
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

150. Reading Comprehension -- Questioning

Source: Blue Ribbon Readers

In this lesson, students explore how to become better readers through questioning before, during and after reading stories. First, a teacher reads aloud the title of the book, and does a "picture walk" of the book with the students. Throughout the story the teacher asks the students to predict what will happen, to connect their personal experiences to the story, and to express their opinions. Students are asked whether the story makes them think of anything that has happened to them. Finally, they extend their understanding through an online interactive activity.

Grade Level: Primary (K-5)
Subjects: Reading Comprehension
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

151. Reading Comprehension -- Visualizing

Source: Blue Ribbon Readers

In this lesson, students will work on Visualizing, one of the 7 Keys to Reading Comprehension. Students will get to interact with a text while a teacher models the visualizing strategy. Students will proceed to implement the strategy with teacher guidance. The lesson will culminate with the students using an interactive activity to practice the strategy independently.

Grade Level: Primary (K-5)
Subjects: Reading Comprehension
Resource Type: Lesson Plan

152. Reading Comprehension -- Making Connections

Source: Blue Ribbon Readers

In this lesson, students will move toward understanding and comprehending text more effectively by making connections with their own background knowledge. Students will learn to make Text-to-Self, Text-to-Text, and Text-to-World Connections. First, the teacher chooses a book to which students can make connections. Next, through the use of modeling, students will make connections in three different ways to help them better understand the text. Finally, the students will show their understanding with the use of a worksheet and online activity.

Grade Level: Primary (K-5)
Subjects: Reading Comprehension
Resource Type: Lesson Plan